By the end of XV century after the transition of Russian North under the Moscow authority, the process of initial territory development of the actual Arkhangelsk region was finished. The majority of known settlements were founded; the borders of different ethnic groups’ settlements were defined.
Certainly, the base of the future economic power of the Russian empire in the North was the peasantry, which was divided into two groups. We can refer the Pomors to the first group. Northern Pomors are descendants of Novgorod people. In the Far North conditions they worked out the unique type of Pomor household that included fishing, hunting sea animals, navigating and trade. Distinctive of the other Russian peasants only by their household life, they were close to them culturally. Their dialect (govor) belongs to the Pomor group of northern Russian languages, and their appearance combined the features of ilmensko-belomorsky type.
The Pomor household differed from classic peasantry. The household calendar depended on the sea – unstable, artful, but giving food and money. The winter was the time to prepare the navigation equipment; spring – the time to form teams (artel’), and determination of the routes of sea voyages; summer – the time for works; and autumn – trading time. The life dependant on the sea developed specific features of Pomors: persistence, courage, inventiveness, patience, attention to everything new that could improve the work and make sea voyages safe. The desire to travel (to search for new hunting lands), freethinking and affection to freedom developed. The people, who go in unknown directions toward new lands, new deeds and discoveries every year couldn’t be different. In course of time the whole complex of navigation and hunting equipment were developed: Pomor boats (Kocha), compasses, northern skis, nets, rods, icepicks, hemstitches, greases, braces… Probably, the list of Pomor tools would occupy more than one page. It is not strange that future Bazhenin, Amosov, Lomonosov, Golovin, Krestinin, Shergin, Pisakhov – those, who became the glory of Russian science, literature, industry and commerce, - were of Pomor descent.
Source: Oleg Kodola “The historical guidebook of Arkhangelsk region”.